Anarquia Internacional 

« A anarquia internacional é a ausência de poder acima dos Estados, sendo uma das características principais do sistema internacional »
Waltz, K. 1979. Theory of International Relations. Reading Mass



« Conjunto de medidas e ações de prevenção, monitorização, deteção, reação, análise e correção que visam manter o estado de segurança desejado e garantir a confidencialidade, integridade, disponibilidade e não repúdio da informação, das redes e sistemas de informação no ciberespaço, e das pessoas que nele interagem. »

Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 92/2019. (2019). Estratégia Nacional de Segurança do Ciberespaço 2019-2023. Diário da República, Série I, 108, 2888-2895


Climate Diplomacy

« Climate diplomacy is the practice and process of creating the international climate change regime and ensuring its effective operation. The evolution of climate diplomacy therefore precedes and shapes the construction of the climate regime. »

Mabey, N. (et al.) (2013). Understanding Climate Diplomacy: Building diplomatic capacity and systems to avoid dangerous climate change. E3G (Third Generation Environmentalism).



« External colonialism […] denotes the expropriation of fragments of Indigenous worlds, animals, plants and human beings, extracting them in order to transport them to – and build the wealth, the privilege, or feed the appetites of – the colonizers, who get marked as the first world. This includes so-thought ‘historic’ examples such as opium, spices, tea, sugar, and tobacco, the extraction of which continues to fuel colonial efforts. » 


« internal colonialism, the biopolitical and geopolitical management of people, land, flora and fauna within the “domestic” borders of the imperial nation. This involves the use of particularized modes of control – prisons, ghettos, minoritizing, schooling, policing – to ensure the ascendancy of a nation and its white elite. »


« Settler colonialism operates through internal/external colonial modes simultaneously because there is no spatial separation between metropole and colony. […] The horizons of the settler colonial nation-state are total and require a mode of total appropriation of Indigenous life and land, rather than the selective expropriation of profit-producing fragments. »

-Tuck, E., e Yang, K. W. (2012). Decolonization is not a metaphor. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, 1(1), 1-40


« lasting union, based on a public international law agreement, between two or more states which retain their sovereignty and their legal equality and which propose to achieve common internal and external goals by means of their union. »

Malinverni, G. (1994). The classical notions of a confederation and of a federal state. Science and technique of democracy, (11), 39-56.


« A cooperação requer que as ações de indivíduos ou organizações separadas […] atinjam uma certa conformidade relativamente uns aos outros, tal é atingido através de um processo de negociação, que é muitas vezes referido como sendo uma “coordenação política»
– Keohane, R. O. (1984). After hegemony: cooperation and discord in the world political economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press


« institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote »
Schumpeter, J. (1950). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper.


Democracia liberal

« political system marked not only by free and fair elections, but also by the rule of law, a separation of powers, and the protection of basic liberties of speech, assembly, religion, and property »
Zakaria, F. (1997). The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. Foreign Affairs, 76(6), 22-43.

Democracia iliberal

« Democratically elected regimes […] routinely ignoring constitutional limits on their power and depriving their citizens of basic rights and freedoms »
Zakaria, F. (1997). The Rise of Illiberal Democracy. Foreign Affairs, 76(6), 22-43.


« ideologia de governo que pretende categorizar os migrantes como ilegais para, posteriormente, os fazer deportar. Esta ideologia baseia-se em segregação espacio-temporal e na ideia da superioridade dos Estados do Ocidente, herdada do colonialismo. »
Palestra Prof. Barak Kalir (o conceito foi proposto por ele)



1. « Devemos pensar na diáspora em primeira instância como uma categoria de prática (…) a diáspora é usada para fazer afirmações, para articular projetos, para formular expectativas, para mobilizar energias, para apelar à lealdade. (…) É frequentemente uma categoria com uma forte mudança normativa. Não descreve tanto o mundo como procura refazê-lo. Como idioma, postura e afirmação, a diáspora é uma forma de formular as identidades e lealdades de uma população. »
Brubaker, Rogers. 2005. «The ‘diaspora’ diaspora». Ethnic and Racial Studies 28 (1): 12.


2. « A Diáspora forma-se quando um povo (ou os seus antepassados) são dispersos, voluntariamente ou à força, em dois ou mais países “periféricos” de um “centro” ou pátria original específico. » 
Diasporas: Revisiting and Discovering. 2020. Diasporas: Revisiting and Discovering. Brill.: 28



« It has at least six meanings, or groups of meanings, interrelated but distinct. At its most comprehensive, it can mean the content of foreign affairs as a whole (…) Secondly, diplomacy can mean the conduct of foreign policy, again a comprehensive matter, involving all aspects of the impact which one country may make on another, including resort to force. Thirdly, it can mean the management of international relations by negotiation. (…) Fourthly, diplomacy can mean the apparatus for managing international relations, especially professional Diplomatic Services (…) Fifthly, it can mean the manner in which international relations are managed. (…) Finally, diplomacy can mean the art or the skill of the diplomat, with popular overtones not only of great ingenuity but also of evasiveness, dissimulation or deceit. »

– Marshall, P. (1997). Positive Diplomacy. New York: Palgrave 


Diplomacia económica
« A set of activities (both regarding methods and processes for international decision making) related to cross border economic activities (export, import, investment, lending, aid, migration) pursued by state and non-state actors in the real world. » 
van Bergeijk, P. A. G., e Moons, S. (2009). Economic Diplomacy and Economic Security.


Diplomacia política
« Public diplomacy is an international actor’s attempt to manage the international environment through engagement with a foreign public.»
Cull, N. J. (2009). Public Diplomacy: Lessons from the Past. Figueroa Press.


Direitos Humanos
« Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status. Human rights include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education, and many more. Everyone is entitled to these rights, without discrimination. »
United Nations. (2016). Human Rights. (accessed Feb.27, 2021)


« Defined in its most familiar form, legal extraterritoriality is the assertion and exercise of jurisdictional powers beyond a specific territorial framework. »
Margolies, D. S., Özu, U., Pal, M., & Tzouvala, N. (2019). The extraterritoriality of law: History, theory, politics. Routledge.


Faith-based diplomacy

« [faith-based diplomacy] means incorporating religious concerns into the practice of international politics. Even more simply put, it means making religion part of the solution in some of the intractable, identity-based conflicts that exceed the grasp of traditional diplomacy »
– Johnston, M. Douglas (2009) Faith-Based Diplomacy: Bridging the Religious Divide, The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, p. 3.


« institutional arrangement, taking the form of a sovereign state, and distinguished from other such states solely by the fact that its central government incorporates regional units in its decision procedure on some constitutionally entrenched basis »
King, P. (1982). Federalism and Federation. London: Croom Helm Ltd.


Gendered Organizations

« First, organizations may be seen as inherently or essentially gendered, which implies that they have been ‘defined, conceptualized and structured in terms of a distinction between masculinity and femininity’, presuming and inevitably reproducing gender differences. Second, organizations or occupations may be seen as gendered if they are male or female dominated. Finally, it is possible to argue that gendering occurs when organizations ‘are symbolically and ideologically described and conceived in terms of a discourse that draws on hegemonically defined masculinities and femininities’. »

Carreiras, H. (2010). Gendered Culture in Peacekeeping Operations. International Peacekeeping, 17(4), 471-485, DOI: 10.1080/13533312.2010.516655



1. « A guerra nada mais é do que um duelo em grande escala. Inúmeros duelos fazem uma guerra, mas pode ser formada uma imagem dela como um todo, imaginando-se um par de lutadores. Cada um deles tenta, através da força física, obrigar o outro a fazer a sua vontade. O seu propósito imediato é derrubar o seu oponente de modo a torná-lo incapaz de oferecer qualquer outra resistência. A guerra é, portanto, um ato de força para obrigar o nosso inimigo a fazer a nossa vontade. »
Clausewitz, V. (1976). On War. Princeton University Press (p. 75). [tradução própria]


2. « Violência organizada levada a cabo por unidades políticas, umas contra as outras. » 
Bull, H. (2002). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York: Palgrave. [tradução própria]


3. « Construção social e histórica que assenta em entendimentos específicos [partilhados] sobre as funções da violência e o estatuto dos intervenientes nela envolvidos. »
Bousquet, A. (2016). War. In F. Berenskoetter (Ed.), Concepts in world politics (pp. 91-106). London: SAGE Publications Ltd. [tradução própria]


Hard Power

« The ability of one actor (usually but not necessarily a state) to influence another through the use of threats or rewards, typically involving military ‘sticks’ or economic ‘carrots’ »

Heywood, A. (2011). Global Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 214.


Identidade Social (Construtivismo)

« social identities have both individual and social structural properties, being at once cognitive schemas that enable an actor to determine “who I am/we are” in a situation and positions in a social role structure of shared understandings and expectations »

– Wendt, A. (1994). Collective Identity Formation and the International State. The American Political Science Review, 88(2), 384-396.



« Imperialism is capitalism in that stage of development in which the dominance of monopolies and finance capital has established itself; in which the export of capital has acquired pronounced importance; in which the division of the world among the international trusts has begun; in which the division of all territories of the globe among the great capitalist powers has been completed. »

– Lenin, V. I. (1916). Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. Penguin Books, p. 111


Instituição Internacional

  1. « a set of rules that stipulate the ways in which states should cooperate and compete with each other. They prescribe acceptable forms of state behavior, and proscribe unacceptable kinds of behavior. (These rules are negotiated by states, and […] are typically formalized in international agreements, and are usually embodied in organizations with their own personnel and budgets) »
    Mearsheimer, J. (1994). The False Promise of International Institutions. International Security, 19(3), 5-49.
  2.  « related complexes of rules and norms, identifiable in space and time […] the rules must be durable, and must prescribe behavioral roles for actors, besides constraining activity and shaping expectations »
    – Keohane, R. O. (1988). International Institutions: Two Approaches. International Studies Quarterly, 32(4), 379–396.
  3. Instituição vs organização: « Institutions are practices composed of recognized roles coupled with sets of rules or conventions governing relations among the occupants of these roles. Organizations are physical entities possessing offices, personnel, equipment, budgets, and so forth »
    – Young, O. (1986). International Regimes: Toward a New Theory of Institutions. World Politics, 39(1), 104-122.

« process whereby political actors in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations and political activities toward a new centre, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre-existing national states »

Haas, E. B. (1958). The Uniting of Europe: Political, Social and Economic Forces, 1950-7. London: Stevens.




« Intersectionality investigates how intersecting power relations influence social relations across diverse societies as well as individual experiences in everyday life. As an analytic tool, intersectionality views categories of race, class, gender, sexuality, nation, ability, and age – among others – as interrelated and mutually shaping one another. Intersectionality is a way of understanding and explaining complexity in the world, in people, and in human experiences. »

Collins, P. H., & Bilge, S. (2020). Intersectionality. John Wiley & Sons.



Intervenção humanitária militar 
« coercive action by states involving the use of armed force in another state without the consent of its government, with or without authorisation from the United Nations Security Council, for the purpose of preventing or putting to a halt gross and massive violations of human rights or international humanitarian law »
Danish Institute of International Affairs (DUPI), (1999). Humanitarian Intervention: Legal and Political Aspects. Copenhagen: DUPI.



« Etimologicamente, jihad significa esforço: é o esforço feito no sentido de encontrar o caminho de Deus. Todavia, para os ativistas radicais do islão, jihad traduz a «Guerra Justa», normalmente traduzida como «Guerra Santa». (…) Por este motivo, os ativistas radicais tendem a considerar a jihad como um sexto pilar do islão. (…) Não obstante, a jihad é sempre vista pelos ativistas radicais como um modo de guerra defensiva, ou seja, é utilizada apenas e só para defender o Islão dos infiéis. »

Almeida e Silva, T. (2014). JIHAD. Em: Enciclopédia das Relações Internacionais. Alfragide: D. Quixote. pp. 278-279


Jihad Defensiva

« como o próprio nome indica, acontece quando a Casa do Islão (Dar-al-Islam) é objeto de ataques por parte dos infiéis (…) e, consequentemente, vê ameaçada a sua própria existência. »

– Almeida e Silva, T. (2014). JIHAD. Em: Enciclopédia das Relações Internacionais. Alfragide: D. Quixote. pp. 278-279


Jihad Ofensiva

« ocorre quando o Dar-al-Islam ataca o território dos infiéis com o objetivo de se expandir e, simultanemanete, de defender a sua fé. »

– Almeida e Silva, T. (2014). JIHAD. Em: Enciclopédia das Relações Internacionais. Alfragide: D. Quixote. pp. 278-279


Jihad Maior ou Jihad Pessoal (Jihad-i-akbar)

« está relacionada com uma luta individual que é exigida a cada um dos crentes para que se libertem de instintos básicos que são nocivos à sua vida, tais como avareza, ciúme, inveja, vingança ou luxúria. »


Jihad Menor, Jihad Marcial ou Jihad Violenta (Jihad-i-asghar

« representa a luta violenta contra os agressores, em nome da religião. »


Lógica de adequação
« Action involves evoking an identity or role and matching the obligations of that identity or role to a specific situation »
March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (1998). The Institutional Dynamics of International Political Orders. International Organization, 52(4), 943–969.


Migração Internacional 

« Movement of persons who leave their country of origin, or the country of habitual residence, to establish themselves either permanently or temporarily in another country. An international frontier is therefore crossed »

IOM, Glossary on Migrartion, 2004,International Migration Law, Geneva,


« Multilateralism can be defined as the practice of co-ordinating national policies in groups of three or more states, through ad hoc arrangements or by means of institutions. »
Keohane, R. O. (1990). Multilateralism: An Agenda for Research. International Journal, 45(4), 731–764.


Não Intervenção
« proscription against action by a state or group of states to alter the domestic politics or some aspects thereof of another state »
Acharya, A. (2009). Whose Ideas Matter?: Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Normas (pelo Construtivismo)

« standard of appropriate behavior for actors with a given identity »

Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998). International Norm Dynamics and Political Change. International Organization, 52(4), 887-917.


Ordem Internacional

  1. Neoliberalismo: « ‘governing’ arrangements among a group of states, including its fundamental rules, principles and institutions »
    Ikenberry, G. J. (2001). After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order after Major Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  2. Escola Inglesa: « a pattern of activity that sustains the elementary or primary goals of the society of states, or international society », sendo eles a preservação dessa sociedade, a manutenção da soberania interna e externa, a manutenção da paz e limitação da violência, assim como o cumprimento das promessas e respeito pela propriedade
    – Bull, H. (2002). The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. New York: Palgrave
  3. Construtivismo: « order is the degree of predictability (or regularity) of what is going on within a social system, presumably because agents’ behavior, social interactions, and social outcomes within the social system have come under some kind of regulation »
    Tang, S. (2016). Order: A Conceptual Analysis. Chinese Political Science Review, 1, 30–46

Organização Internacional 
« Instituições vantajosas e úteis com regras explícitas, existindo a atribuição de funções específicas a indivíduos e grupos, possuindo capacidade de ação  »
Keohane, R. O. (1988). International Institutions: Two Approaches. International Studies Quarterly, 32(4), 379–396.


« the corporate institution for dealing with the Orient […] by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it settling it, ruling over it: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for dominating restructuring, and having authority over the Orient »
Said, E. W. (1978). Orientalism. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.


« Uma pandemia trata-se da propagação mundial de uma nova doença. Uma pandemia ocorre quando um novo vírus surge e se espalha por todo o mundo sendo que, a maioria das pessoas não tem imunidade ao mesmo. Os vírus que causaram pandemias no passado normalmente possuem origem animal. »
WHO – “what is a pandemic?” (accessed Nov.15, 2020)



« Politically, feminists of a variety of different persuasions have seized upon the concept of patriarchy in the search for an explanation of feelings of opression and subordination, and in the desire to transform feelings of rebellion into a political practice and theory. And theoretically the concept of patriarchy has been used to address the question of the real basis of the subordination of women, and to analyse the particular forms which it assumes. Thus the theory of patriarchy attempts to penetrate beneath the particular experiences and manifestations of women’s oppression and to formulate some coherent theory of the basis of subordination which underlies them. »

Beechey, V. (1979). On Patriarchy. Feminist Review, 3(1), 66–82.



« Trata-se de uma ideologia centrada que considera que a sociedade está separada em dois grupos homogéneos e antagónicos, “o povo puro” contra “a elite corrupta”, defendendo que a política deve ser uma expressão do volonte ge’ne’rale (vontade geral) do povo. »


Populismo inclusivo ( América Latina)

« O populismo da América Latina tem predominantemente uma dimensão socioeconómica (incluindo os pobres)” ;
“O populismo contemporâneo na América Latina favorece a representação política de grupos que foram discriminados e cujas vozes não foram tidas em conta. »


Populismo exclusivo (Europa)

« O populismo europeu tem uma dimensão essencialmente sociocultural” (…) a direita populista europeia centra-se principalmente na exclusão de grupos não nativos (imigrantes ilegais, criminosos, trabalhadores convidados, refugiados, minorias étnicas). »

Mudde, Cas, e Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. 2013. “Exclusionary Vs Inclusionary Populism: Comparing Contemporary Europe and Latin America.” Government and Opposition 48: 147-74.


Regime Internacional
« sets of implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a given area of international relations »

Krasner, S. D. (Ed.) (1983). International Regimes. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.


Rule of Law

« mecanismo, processo ou prática que apoia a igualdade dos cidadãos perante a lei. para além disso, assegura a não arbitrariedade do governo e previne o uso arbitrário de poder por parte do governos »



Sharp Power

« Today’s authoritarian states—notably including China and Russia—are using “sharp power” to project their influence internationally, with the objectives of limiting free expression, spreading confusion, and distorting the political environment within democracies. Sharp power is an approach to international affairs that typically involves efforts at censorship or the use of manipulation to sap the integrity of independent institutions. This approach takes advantage of the asymmetry between free and unfree systems, allowing authoritarian regimes both to limit free expression and to distort political environments in democracies while simultaneously shielding their own domestic public spaces from democratic appeals coming from abroad. »
– Walker, C. (2018). What Is “Sharp Power”?. Journal of Democracy, 29(3), 9-23.


Sistema Internacional 

« Sistema anárquico constituido por unidades “similares”, onde a capacidade relativa destas deve ser analisada entre as mesmas numa lógica de distribuição de poder. »

– Waltz, K. 1979. Theory of International Relations. Reading Mass


Smart Power

« ‘Smart power‘ is a concept that underscores the necessity of a strong military, but also invests heavily in alliances, partnerships, and institutions at all levels to expand American influence and establish the legitimacy of American action.’ More plainly, smart power is a combination of both hard and soft power approaches to diplomacy.»

Dargiel, J. (2009). ‘Smart Power’: A change in U.S. diplomacy strategy. E-International Relations


« internalization of the values, roles, and understandings held by a group that constitutes the society of which the actor becomes a member »
Johnston, A. (2001). Treating International Institutions as Social Environments. International Studies Quarterly, 45(4), 487-515.


Soft Power

« The ability to influence other actors by persuading them to follow or agree to norms and aspirations that produce the desired behaviour »

Heywood, A. (2011). Global Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 214.



« Terrorism by the state (or non- state actors) involves deliberate coercion and violence (or the threat thereof) directed at some victim, with the intention of inducing extreme fear in some target observers who identify with that victim in such a way that they perceive themselves as potential future victims. In this way they are forced to consider altering their behaviour in some manner desired by the actor. »

– Mitchell, C., Stohl, M., Carleton, D., Lopez, G. (1986) ‘State Terrorism: Issues of Concept and Measurement’, in Michael Stohl and George Lopez (eds) Government Violence and Repression: An Agenda for Research, New York: Greenwood Press: 1–26.


Washington Consensus

« A term used to describe the belief in the United States and in international financial institutions that neoliberal policies constitute the most effective way of promoting economic development. »

– Weeks G. (2015) U.S. and Latin American relations (pp. 323). UK: Wiley Blackwell